Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine found in China to promote health. Modern research has disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The current study evaluated the antitumor outcomes of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore powder and spores oil, and investigated the potential underlying mechanisms by observing the results of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The final results indicated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also called Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is among most often used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and scientific studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in its fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The current study examined the antitumor activity of a combination of aqueous and ethanol extracts from the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which was taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes active in the regulating DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression has become connected to numerous human malignancies and is also the prospective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). In the event that topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription from the DNA and during cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study indicated that the active components of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The current study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were offered by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Technology and science Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to make solutions of varied concentrations, that had been brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil was a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of ganoderma lucidum spore oil were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the impact of Ganoderma on tumors has become increasingly studied. The current study said that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the expansion of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the growth of the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects inside the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since the past, Ganoderma has been popular being a popular herbal medicine for the promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain effect on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of many components of Ganoderma extract is actually a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). Because there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) inside the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident effect on immunity. The current study also established that the antitumor outcomes of Ganoderma might be safer in comparison with 5-FU, which ended in the decreased bodyweight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To research the possible mechanism of Agaricus Blazei Extract, the effects of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes involved in the regulating DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the level of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Those two activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, when the DNA helix has to be unwound to enable proper purpose of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy uses this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. For example, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, including doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and also the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.